Saturday, March 9, 2024
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Natural History

Natural history


Marine fossils are mostly used to measure extinction rates because of their superior fossil record and stratigraphic range compared to land organisms.

Marine Fossil- Oyster, Indus Mouth, Lakhpat.

Fossilized oysters can indeed be found in sedimentary deposits around the mouth of the Indus River, where it meets the Arabian Sea. The Indus River delta, like many river deltas around the world, is rich in sedimentary materials and fossils due to the deposition of sediment carried by the river over millennia.

The Indus River delta is a dynamic and diverse ecosystem, characterized by extensive mangrove forests, mudflats, and tidal creeks. These coastal and estuarine habitats provide ideal conditions for the preservation of marine fossils, including oysters.

Holothurian. Location: Indus Mouth, Lakhpat.

“Holothurian” refers to a member of the class Holothuroidea, which is a group of marine animals commonly known as sea cucumbers. They are marine animals with a leathery skin and an elongated body containing a single, branched gonad. Lakhpat, is a historic town located in the Kutch district of the Indian state of Gujarat. Situated near the western border of India with Pakistan, Lakhpat holds significant historical and cultural importance.

Charnockite. Location: Kottayam

Charnockite is a type of granitic rock that is notable for its occurrence in southern India, particularly in the state of Kerala. It is named after Job Charnock, an administrator with the East India Company, who was one of the founders of the city of Kolkata (Calcutta) in West Bengal, India. Charnockite is significant because of its widespread distribution and its importance in various geological and architectural contexts. In Kerala, charnockite formations contribute to the region’s distinctive landscape and have played a role in shaping its architectural heritage. The use of charnockite in construction reflects its abundance, durability, and aesthetic appeal, making it a valuable resource in the region’s architectural traditions. In India they form the Nilgiri Hills, the Shevaroys, the Biligirirangan Hills and part of the Western Ghats, extending southward to Kanyakumari and reappearing in Sri Lanka.

Laterite. Location: Kottayam

Laterite is a type of soil and rock formation that is common in tropical regions, including parts of Kerala, India. It forms through the weathering of parent rocks, typically composed of basaltic rocks such as volcanic rocks or sedimentary rocks rich in iron and aluminum. Laterite formation is a result of the leaching of silica and other soluble materials, leaving behind a residual concentration of iron oxides and aluminum hydroxides.

In Kerala, laterite has been utilized in various architectural styles, contributing to the region’s distinctive built environment. Its use reflects not only its availability but also its suitability for withstanding the tropical climate and environmental conditions prevalent in the area.

Carbonized wood, Kottayam

Carbonization of wood occurs through heat-treating. The heat literally caramelizes the naturally occurring sugars in the wood, creating a rich caramel brown color. The color of carbonized wood is warmer than the color that results from fuming/smoking. Because the sugar content of individual boards can vary more dramatically than tannin content, carbonization tends to create even more color variation than fuming/smoking.